Protestant Educators

Picture of John H. Westerhoff, III

Rev. Dr. John H. Westerhoff, III (b. 1933). A United Church of Christ minister, later an Episcopalian priest, and professor at Duke University Divinity School for twenty years, he advocated through his writing, teaching, pastoring, and editorial work an enculturation model he called "catechesis" or Christian formation.

Biography

Early Life and Education

John Henry Westerhoff III was born June 28, 1933, in Paterson, New Jersey. Neither John's parents nor his living grandparents were religious, though they were nominally Protestant and occasionally attended church. When John was four months old, his parents had him privately baptized at the First Presbyterian Church in Paterson where they had married. John says of his baptism, that although it was "at best an act of magic on the part of my parents and [that] church … I count that day among the most significant in my life. That event was kept alive in my unconscious mind through many years … [it was] the day God chose me for ministry, gave me a new identity and vocation as a redeemed person, adopted me into my true family-the church, called me by my new name "John Henry Christian," and branded me for life with the sign of the cross so that I might someday know who I really am and to whom I really belong." (Westerhoff, 1983, 120)

When he was three John's mother brought him to Sunday school at the Presbyterian church for about a year. It was an intimidating social experience and he found he preferred the silence and space of the liturgical services his parents attended at Christmas and Easter. When John was eight he responded to a neighbor's invitation and began to attend a nondenominational, fundamentalist congregation. The minister took an interest in John. He visited John's home and told his mother that God had called him to be a minister of the Gospel. He also told her that she should encourage him to hold revival meetings in the garage for children in the neighborhood which so upset his mother that she prohibited him from attending that church again.

As he entered his teens, John was allowed to decide for himself what to do on Sunday mornings and he began attending a Dutch Reformed Community church in Glen Rock, New Jersey, where they had moved. Again the pastor took an interest in John and predicted that he would become a minister. His "father in God," Dr. Vernon Oggell, enlisted him to assist in weekly worship, gave him a Sunday school to teach, and taught him the basics of a Reformed, Calvinist, evangelical, and intellectual approach to the faith.

At Ursinus College, the evangelical Reformed (now United Church of Christ) school he attended in Collegeville, Pennsylvania after high school, his religious commitment and zeal earned him the nickname "Preach." This was ironic because during this time John went into a period of major doubt and searching, his previous notions of a single and absolute truth being replaced with philosophical relativism, religious pluralism, and scientific rationalism, and boycotting church and chapel. Nevertheless, he prayed regularly, read books on Scripture and theology voraciously, and organized an independent congregation of about twenty other searching or skeptical students for worship and study. His convictions concerning the need for community, the essential nature of the liturgy, the normalcy of instruction and education, and the need for church reform are manifest even in this period. He graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree in psychology in 1955 (Gibbs, 1992, 231).

The call to be a minister did not subside with the rejection of his childhood/adolescent conservative faith outlook. He immediately entered studies for his Bachelor of Divinity degree (now a Master of Divinity) at Harvard Divinity School and he judged those three years as "the most significant and transforming years" of his life (Westerhoff, 2000, 123). There he was exposed to influential professors from a broad spectrum of the Christian faith and theological disciplines. From Paul Tillich in particular he learned a dialectical approach to thinking and he reconciled his internal civil wars between faith and doubt, commitment and openness, reasoning and intuiting, practice and theory, by affirming the paradoxical and complex nature of much of truth and life. John also became convinced that subjective experience, intuition, and affect preceded objective reflection and reason and therefore were more foundational to religious life and that furthermore, these "right brain" functions were best nurtured and expressed through the arts and liturgy. Both convictions are articulated early in his writings on Christian education.

During his time at Harvard, Westerhoff was hired to direct the youth ministry of the First Congregational Church (United Church of Christ) in Needham, Massachusetts. There he found a father in the faith and a denominational home. The pastor, Herbert Smith, became, in Westerhoff's words, "my dearest friend and mentor, the single most influential person in my life" (Westerhoff, 2000,). From Smith he learned to value liturgical worship and education. He was twenty-two when, on All Saints Day, November 1, he was confirmed, affirmed his call to the ordained ministry, and was taken under care by the UCC. In 1958, he was ordained. Westerhoff has commented that his life and his work are "synonymous" (Westerhoff, 1983, 117) and that it was reflection on his own and others' faith pilgrimages that led him to his theory of faith development. By this time he had moved from experienced faith as a child through affiliative faith as an adolescent to searching faith in college and owned faith while at Harvard and First Congregational in Needham.

Westerhoff received his first parish in Presque Isle, Main. Two years later he returned to Needham to co-pastor the church that had now grown to more than two thousand people, about half children and youth. He and Smith worked together in developing and overseeing the educational staff and program, an experience that influenced his antipathy to education as a specialized, non-integrated ministry. He helped design and develop one of the early seminary programs in field education. During this time he observed that the hidden curriculum was more influential than the formal program, that intergenerational worship and activities were more engaging and vital than age groups, and that educational resources and programs always needed to be tailored to the specific congregation. Four years later he went to First Congregational Church (UCC) on the campus of Williams College, Williamstown, Massachusetts where for three years he continued to experiment with ways to accomplish Christian formation. During this time he taught some classes at Harvard Divinity School.

Westerhoff's next eight years were spent on the staff of the United Church Board for Homeland Ministries where he founded and edited "Colloquy," a magazine on education in church and society that published from 1967 to 1974. During this time he traveled around the world, interviewing almost every significant person in the field of church and secular education; the list includes Ivan Illich (who reinforced his skepticism about traditional schooling), Paulo Freire (who persuaded him of the need for liberation theology and pedagogy), Harvey Cox, Brother Christopher of Taizé, Gabriel Moran, Noam Chomsky and others. He wrote, co-wrote, and edited numerous articles and books, including Values for tomorrow's children: An alternative future for education in the church, A colloquy on Christian education (which includes articles by current religious educators such as Sarah Little, C. Ellis Nelson, James E. Loder, Robert W. Lynn, Randolph Crump Miller, and D. Campbell Wyckoff), and Generation to generation: Conversations on religious education and culture. He was a Lecturer in Education and Communication at Harvard, Princeton, and Union Theological Seminaries, produced two children's television shows for NBC, was a reporter for Religious News Service and the World Council of Churches, and was a partner in a consulting firm working with such organizations as the American Association of University Women and the civil rights division of the National Education Association (Wayne E. Oats Institute, 2002,).

During those years he had married Bernie, whom he had met in college, and had three children, Jill, Jack, and Beth. He had developed a reputation as a controversial and radical new thinker in Christian education. But by 1974 subscriptions for Colloquy plunged and there was a sense of cultural shift and personal re-orientation. Westerhoff had been revising his North American Liberal Protestant perspective, taking in Latin American liberation theology, digging into the early and medieval periods of the church, and exploring the Roman Catholic catechetical tradition. He did not feel as at home in his denomination as he once had. He was digging for a theoretical foundation for his work and C. Ellis Nelson's theology and ideas about religious socialization provided him with that. John realized that for Christian education to change, the clergy needed to think differently, and that would be aided by his teaching in a seminary. For that he would need a doctorate; he completed an Ed.D. in foundations of education at Columbia University Teachers College in 1974 in just fifteen months. His dissertation, William Holmes McGuffey and value system in the first editions of the Eclectic first, second, third, and fourth readers was the basis for his later book McGuffey and his readers: Piety, morality, and education in nineteenth-century America.

Westerhoff left the United Church Board for Homeland Ministries, and taught at Harvard the next year. A broken neck in a near-fatal car accident provided the final punctuation mark. An invitation to join faculty of the Duke University Divinity School as assistant professor of religious education opened a new twenty-year chapter in his life. During his time at Duke he was tenured and promoted, eventually retiring as Professor of Theology and Christian Nurture. He wrote, co-wrote, and edited about twelve books during this period as well as writing hundreds of articles and book chapters and editing the Religious Education Journal from 1977 to 1987. Robert Lynn characterized Westerhoff's first book as in the tradition of the Tractarians-passionate, contentious, and looking for dialog; most of his subsequent writings continue in the same spirit. He did not systematize his thought; he did not even keep track of his writings. Westerhoff said he wrote books like painters paint paintings. They were explorations of specific issues or questions, and when he had committed his thoughts to print, he moved on quickly to the next problem. Probably his most significant work was the 1976 Will our children have faith?. "All my other books either prepared me for writing it or have been in some sense commentaries on or expansions of thoughts in this seminal book" (Westerhoff, 2000, xiii). It was translated into at least six languages and reprinted by a number of publishers. Thousands of seminarians had this book as assigned reading and lay educational ministers looked to it for guidance. Twenty-five years later, a revised and expanded edition was published.

In 1978 he became a priest in the Episcopal Church, which has remained his denominational home. In this tradition he was able to embrace both the "Catholic substance and the Protestant principle" (Westerhoff, 1983, 134); he also thought that his developing ideas on catechesis would be more welcomed. He took up part-time duties in Chapel of the Cross. Westerhoff never saw himself as a professional Christian educator or an academic scholar. His core identity has been priest, pastor, and teacher. But he his professional activities were largely in the realm of religious education, and he associated with the Association of Researchers and Professors of Religious Education (APRRE) and the Religious Education Association (REA). Urban T. Holmes III became a strong influence and the two developed ideas together and coauthored a book.

After his marriage ended, John spent the last few years while teaching at Duke in an Anglican monastic community, St. John's House. He then married Caroline A. Hughes with whom he had co-authored a number of books and with whom he continues to collaborate. After a year as interim rector at St. Bartholomew's Church in Atlanta, Georgia, John became theologian-in-residence and staff member at St. Luke's Church. He founded and directs the Institute for Pastoral Studies, a vehicle for his wider teaching and writing ministry. He has received an honorary Doctor of Divinity from his old alma mater, Ursinus College. In 2002, John was anticipating retirement in a few years.

The material for this essay has been drawn primarily from two autobiographical essays by Westerhoff and a tape-recorded interview with the author.

Works Cited

  • Gibbs, Eugene S. (Ed.). (1992). A reader in Christian education: Foundations and basic perspectives. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
  • Wayne E. Oats Institute. (2002). John Westerhoff bio for Transforming Ministry Conference, [WWW].
  • Westerhoff, John H., III. (1983). A journey into self-understanding. In Marlene Mayr (Ed.), Modern masters of religious education (pp. 115-134). Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.
  • __________. (2000). Will our children have faith? (Revised and expanded ed.). Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing. (Reprint: Toronto, ON: Anglican Book House, 2000).
  • __________ & Bramer, Paul D.G. (2002). Telephone interview with John H: Westerhoff, III by Paul D. G. Bramer [Sound recording]. Chicago, IL and Atlanta, GA: Paul D. G. Bramer (personal library).

Contributions to Christian Education

John H. Westerhoff III may be one of the more familiar names in Christian education in North America during the last quarter of the twentieth century. Although he has worked primarily in the mainstream Protestant church (Episcopal, Presbyterian, Lutheran, United Methodist, United Church of Christ, Reformed Church in America, and American Baptist Convention), he has been listened to by evangelical and Catholic as well.

"Christians are fashioned, not born" was a favorite quote (from Tertullian) of Westerhoff. His dominant concern has been to help the church move from a schooling model of Christian education to a catechetical model of Christian formation. Critique of the schooling model as monologic, didactic, cognitive, argumentative was in harmony with the concerns of Ivan Illich, Paulo Freire, and others. Catechesis was understood by Westerhoff to be every activity used by the church to initiate and form persons into the Christian community and the Christian faith, ideas in harmony with C. Ellis Nelson.

There are few comprehensive books on religious since 1976 that do not reference Westerhoff or view him as a strong representative of certain approaches. Jack Seymour states that Westerhoff "stands in a grand tradition of Christian educators who look to the faith community as the context, content, and method for Christian education theory and practice" (Seymour, 1982, 20) and calls him a herald of the socialization/enculturation model (Seymour, 1996, 4). Charles R. Foster agrees, naming Westerhoff "the best known proponent of the community of faith approach." (Foster, 1982). Harold Burgess places him in the Mid-Century Mainline model (formerly called the Neo-Orthodox model) and observes that "passages in John Westerhoff's writings may well be the purest examples of the mainline model in operation" (Burgess, 1996, 117). Perry Downs refers to him one of the "two most responsible critics of formalized Christian nurture," the other being Larry Richards) (Downs, 1994, 156). Mary C. Boys puts Westerhoff in the "Christian education with contemporary modification" camp (over against evangelism, religious education, and catholic education/catechetics) (Boys, 1989, 129) while Thomas Groome typifies him as in the Bushnell-Coe-Nelson tradition. (Groome, 1980, 121).

Westerhoff's influence has been extensive. His book Will Our Children Have Faith? was used extensively in college and seminary religious education classes, is translated into six languages, and has been revised and republished twenty-five years after its original publication. His "tree rings" analogy of faith styles or development is often cited (e.g., Habermas & Issler, 1992; Little, 1986; Pazmiño, 1994; Steele, 1990). He has been one of the main engineers shaping the Episcopal understanding of Christian education and formation; he authored the book that continues to give guidance to that denomination (Westerhoff, 1994). Eugene Gibbs includes Westerhoff in his Reader in Christian Education (Westerhoff, 1992) as one of the major contributors to twentieth century Christian education. There have been at least two doctoral dissertations on his work (Lim, 1982; Nicholson, 1981). Kenneth Gangel and Warren Benson in their 1983 history of Christian education recognize that Westerhoff was part of the leadership core in Religious Education Association (Gangel & Benson, 1983, 320), while James Reed and Ronnie Prevost's history includes a section on Westerhoff as one of the noteworthy Christian educators of the twentieth century (Reed & Prevost, 1993, 357-358). Charles Foster notes that "Thanks in particular to the work of C. Ellis Nelson and John Westerhoff, the insights and categories of sociology and anthropology have come to be increasingly explored and appropriated by Christian educators." (Foster, 1982, 58).

Westerhoff is recognized as being among the first North American authors to take notice of liberation theology in 1970 (Schipani, 1988, 6). He was sympathetic to that perspective and became a proponent of liberation theology, contending, that "liberation theology provides the most helpful theological system for Christian education today" believing it to allow a synthesis between liberal and neo-orthodox positions (Westerhoff, 1976, 31). Craig Dykstra credits Westerhoff with bringing about the virtual consensus that "Faith is formed, developed and owned in the context of communities of faith." (Dykstra, 1996, 252). Westerhoff has been instrumental in raising consciousness about the elements and scope of Christian education, struggling with nomenclature and definitions and publishing essays and books such as Who are we? (Westerhoff, 1978) on the subject. Ironically, his own preferred term, catechetics, has not gained wide acceptance outside of the Episcopal Church (Groome, 1980, 17) although he finally became content with the term "Christian formation" (J. H. Westerhoff, III & Bramer, 2002). Westerhoff has been aligned for a time with each of a variety of perspectives: evangelical, liberal, neo-orthodox, liberationist, Catholic, contemplative, etc. When standing in any one of those traditions, he has been critical of the others, but his life and teaching has enfolded these traditions into his approach. "Westerhoff has a way of probing at the intersection of theory and practice," stated Burgess (Burgess, 1996, 131). Westerhoff changed in many respects over his career, yet he did not change most of his basic assumptions as his afterthoughts in his republished seminal work, Will our children have faith? illustrates (Westerhoff, 2000). Westerhoff has continued to search, question, and provoke while at the same time striving to be faithful to his calling as a pastor-educator.

Westerhoff, of course, has been criticized. Some of the criticism is not so much what he proposes but how thoroughly he criticizes and rejects some other things. For example, Groome states, "he is so sweeping in his rejection of the "schooling-instructional" paradigm that it is difficult to envision the form intentional educational activity might take within his "community of faith-enculturation" paradigm." (Groome, 1980, 131). James Michael Lee points out the contradiction that Westerhoff questions reliance on philosophy, social science, and general education rather than upon theology, but his approach is quite thoroughly sociological (Lee, 1996, 60). Some see him as elevating experience over revelation. Timothy Lines in Systemic Religious Education (Lines, 1987; quoted in J. H. Westerhoff, III, 1987, 578) commented that Westerhoff had not yet constructed a careful, reasoned, systemic framework for religious education. Lines thought Westerhoff was temperamentally indisposed to doing such; Westerhoff at the time believed it was because he was too young. However, in a recent interview, he admits that it is unlikely that he will attempt such a magnum opus because he finds himself suspicious of systems (J. H. Westerhoff, III & Bramer, 2002).

Westerhoff's practical theology starts with the nature and role of the church. The church is at once visible, historical, and human and yet hidden, transcendent, divine. While presently full of contradictions (e.g., holy yet with sinners, a unity yet divided), it is the church that has the faith and is the witness; our choice is whether or not to participate in it. It is our full participation that brings about our formation. That participation will create in us an historical consciousness, an ethical conscience, a compassionate heart, and a theological mind.

Westerhoff wanted to broaden the field in every way. As to the person, he wanted to engage intuition and emotion and body, not just mind. As to method, he wanted to include liturgy, the arts, and service, not just instruction. (Thomas Groome states that among his most valuable insights are the role of liturgy, ritual, and symbol in Christian formation (Groome, 1980, 120).) As to faith, he wanted to see it developmentally and in a pilgrim motif, not just in any single sense or experience. He wanted church to be community-oriented and inter-generational, not individualistic or age-segmented. He wanted to include all dimensions of life, the political, social, and economic in Christian education, not just the religious. As such he was a post-modern voice at the end of the modern era, trying to link the future with the past, so that our churches would be places where our children would come to have faith and Christians would be formed.

Works Cited

  • Boys, Mary C. (1989). Educating in faith: Maps and visions. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row.
  • Burgess, Harold W. (1996). Models of religious education: Theory and practice in historical and contemporary perspective. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker
  • Books. (Previously published by SP Publications, Wheaton, IL. Previously published by Baker Books, Grand Rapids, MI.).
  • Downs, Perry G. (1994). Teaching for spiritual growth: An introduction to Christian education. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House.
  • Dykstra, Craig R. (1996). The formative power of the congregation. In Jeff Astley & Colin Crowder & Leslie J. Francis (Eds.), Theological perspectives on Christian formation: A reader on theology and Christian education (pp. 252-265). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. (Originally published in Religious Education Journal 82: 530-546).
  • Foster, Charles L. (1982). The faith community as a guiding image for Christian education. In Jack L. Seymour & Donald E. Miller (Eds.), Contemporary approaches to Christian education (pp. 53-71). Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.
  • Gangel, Kenneth O., & Benson, Warren S. (1983). Christian education: Its history and philosophy. Chicago, Il: Moody Press.
  • Groome, Thomas H. (1980). Christian religious education: Sharing our story and vision. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row, Publishers.
  • Habermas, Ronald, & Issler, Klaus. (1992). Teaching for reconciliation: Foundations and practice of Christian Educational Ministry. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
  • Lee, James Michael. (1996). Religious education and theology. In Jeff Astley & Colin Crowder & Leslie J. Francis (Eds.), Theological perspectives on Christian formation: A reader on theology and Christian education (pp. 45-68). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. (Originally published in Religious Education Journal 82: 530-546).
  • Lim, Adynna Y. (1982). A comparative study of the socialization models of Christian education of John H. Westerhoff III and Lawrence O. Richards. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University. (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1982).
  • Lines, Timothy Arthur. (1987). Systemic religious education. Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.
  • Little, Sara. (1986). To set one's heart: Belief and teaching in the church. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox. (First published 1983 by John Knox).
  • Nicholson, John Patrick. (1981). Analysis of theological, sociological, educational, and organizational dimensions of Westerhoff's socialization-enculturation paradigm. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, Fordham University. (Ann Arbor: University Microfilms, 1982).
  • Pazmiño, Robert W. (1994). By what authority do we teach? Sources for empowering Christian educators. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.
  • Reed, James E., & Prevost, Ronnie. (1993). A history of Christian education. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers.
  • Schipani, Daniel S. (1988). Religious education encounters liberation theology. Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.
  • Seymour, Jack L. (1982). Approaches to Christian education. In Jack L. Seymour & Donald E. Miller (Eds.), Contemporary approaches to Christian education (pp. 11-34). Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.
  • __________. (1996). Contemporary approaches to Christian education. In Jeff Astley & Colin Crowder & Leslie J. Francis (Eds.), Theological perspectives on Christian formation: A reader on theology and Christian education (pp. 3-13). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
  • Steele, Les L. (1990). On the way: A practical theology of Christian formation. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
  • Westerhoff, John H., III. (1976). Will our children have faith? New York: Seabury Press. (Reprint: Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press, 1976 ISBN: 0816403098. San Francisco, CA: Harper SanFrancisco, 1976 ISBN: 0866839526. New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1976 ISBN: 0816424357. Toronto, ON: Anglican Book Centre, 1983 ISBN: 0919030912).
  • __________ (Ed.). (1978). Who are we?: The quest for a religious education. Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press. (On the occasion of the Religious Education Association's 75th anniversary).
  • __________. (1987). Formation, education, instruction. Religious Education Journal, 82, 578-591.
  • __________. (1992). The shaking of the foundations. In Eugene S. Gibbs (Ed.), A reader in Christian education: Foundations and basic perspectives (pp. 231-246). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House. (Excerpted from Will our children have faith? 1976, 1-15, 78.).
  • __________. (1994). Called to teach and learn: A catechetical vision and guide for the Episcopal church. New York, NY: Episcopal Church Center; The Episcopal Church, USA; The Domestic and Foreign Missionary PECUSA. (Official document of the Episcopal Church. Unattributed but primary writer was John H. Westerhoff III; edited by Lois Sibley).
  • __________. (2000). Will our children have faith? ( Revised and expanded ed.). Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing. (Reprint: Toronto, ON: Anglican Book House, 2000).
  • __________ & Bramer, Paul D.G. (2002). Telephone interview with John H: Westerhoff, III by Paul D. G. Bramer [Sound recording]. Chicago, IL and Atlanta, GA: Paul Bramer (personal library).

Bibliography

Books Authored

  • (2004-forthcoming). Welcome to the Book of Common Prayer. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing.
  • (2002). A people called Episcopalians: A brief introduction to our peculiar way of life (Rev. ed.). Atlanta, GA: Morehouse Publishing. Originally published with subtitle, A resource for inquiry classes, Atlanta, GA: St. Bartholomew's Episcopal Church, 1993; Rev. ed Atlanta, GA: St. Luke's Press, 1994.
  • (2002). Grateful and generous hearts: A resource for stewardship. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing; Atlanta, GA: St. Luke's Press. Originally published 1997, 2001.
  • (2002). Holy baptism: A guide for parents and godparents. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing, Atlanta, GA: St. Luke's Press. Originally published 1996.
  • (2002). To love and to cherish, til death do us part: Preparing for the celebration and blessing of a marriage. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing. Originally published 1998 with subtitle A guide for marriage preparation.
  • (2000). Will our children have faith? (Rev. and expanded ed.). Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing.
  • (1998). Sensing beauty: Aesthetics, the human spirit and the church. Cleveland, OH: United Church Press.
  • (1994). Called to teach and learn: A catechetical vision and guide for the Episcopal church. New York, NY: Episcopal Church Center; The Episcopal Church, USA; The Domestic and Foreign Missionary PECUSA. [authorship unattributed].
  • (1994). Liturgy and learning through the life cycle (Rev. ed.). Akron, OH: OSL Publications.
  • (1994). Spiritual life: The foundation for preaching and teaching. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press.
  • (1992). Living into our baptism: Initiation and personal growth in Christian faith and life (Rev ed.). Witchita, KS: Episcopal Diocese of Kansas.
  • (1985). Living the faith community: The church that makes a difference. Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press.
  • (1984). A pilgrim people: Learning through the church year. Minneapolis, MN: Seabury Press.
  • (1983). Building God's people in a materialistic society. New York, NY: Seabury Press.
  • (1982). McGuffey and his readers: Piety, morality, and education in nineteenth-century America. Milford, MI: Mott Media. Originally published Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1978.
  • (1980). Bringing up children in the Christian faith. Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press.
  • (1979). Generation to generation: Education and culture (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Pilgrim Press.
  • (1979). Inner growth, outer change: An educational guide to church renewal. New York, NY: Seabury Press.
  • (1979). Values for tomorrow's children: Education in the church. New York, NY: Pilgrim Press.
  • (1979). William Holmes McGuffey and value system in the first editions of the Eclectic first, second, third, and fourth readers. s.l.: University Microfilms International.
  • (1978). Kiduckyo kioukhak damhaw [A colloquy on Christian education] (J. E. Kim, Trans.). Seoul, Korea: The Christian Literature Society.
  • (1978). Tendrán fe nuestros hijos? [Will our children have faith?]. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial La Aurora.
  • (1976). Tomorrow's church: A community of change. Waco, TX: Word Books.
  • (1976). Will our children have faith? New York, NY: Seabury Press. Also published, Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press, 1976; San Francisco, CA: Harper SanFrancisco, 1976; New York, NY: Harper and Row, 1976; Toronto, ON: Anglican Book Centre, 1983.
  • (1975). William Holmes McGuffey and value system in the first editions of the Eclectic first, second, third, and fourth readers. Unpublished Dissertation (Ed. D.), Columbia University.
  • (1972). Liberation letters: Nine-year-old magazine editor to some high school friends. Philadelphia, PA: United Church Press.
  • (1971). Giant step. New York, NY: National Broadcasting Co.
  • (1970). Values for tomorrow's children: An alternative future for education in the church. Philadelphia, PA: United Church Press.

Books Co-Authored With

  • Edwards, O. C., Jr. (Eds.). (1981). A faithful church: Issues in the history of catechesis. Wilton, CT: Morehouse-Barlow Co.
  • Eusden, J. D. (1982). The spiritual life: Learning east and west. New York, NY: Seabury Press.
  • Holmes, U. T., III (1979). Christian believing. Church's Teaching Series, Vol. 1. New York, NY: Seabury Press. (Written with the assistance of a group of editorial advisors under the direction of the Church's Teaching Series Committee).
  • Hughes, C. A. (1989). Living into our baptism: Initiation and personal growth in Christian faith and life. Witchita, KS: Episcopal Diocese of Kansas.
  • __________. (1989). Planning for education within congregations. Washington, DC: The Alban Institute.
  • __________. (1987). On the threshold of God's future. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row. (May have been originally published 1985 and/or 1986.).
  • Lee, B. J., Osborne, & J. C., Huaghey, K. (1987). Alternative futures for worship: The Eucharist (Vol. 3). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.
  • McCune, S. (1976). To make a difference: Planning for the future. Washington, DC: National Education Association of the United States. Also, a Teacher's guide.
  • Neville, G. K. (1978). Learning through liturgy. New York, NY: Seabury Press. (Reprint: East Malvern, Victoria, Australia: Dove Communications).
  • __________. (1974). Generation to generation: Conversations on religious education and culture. Philadelphia, PA: United Church Press.
  • Simon, S. B. (1969). How can we teach values? Philadelphia, PA: United Church Press. Reprinted with adaptations from Colloquy, v. 3, no. 1, Jan. 1970, Division of Christian Education, United Church Board for Homeland Ministries.
  • Westerhoff, C. A., (1994). Calling: A song for the baptized. Boston, MA: Cowley Publications.
  • Williamson, J. C. (1972). Learning to be free. Philadelphia, PA: United Church Press.
  • Willimon, W. H. (1980). Liturgy and learning through the life cycle. New York, NY: Seabury Press.

Books and Journals: Edited

  • Hauerwas, S. (1992). Schooling Christians: "Holy experiments" in American education. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans.
  • (1981). Questionable assumptions in religious education. Religious Education, 76, 465-516.
  • (1980). Moral development. Religious Education, 75, 113-214. (Association of Professors and Researchers in Religious Education papers, 1980).
  • (1980). Spirituality and religious education. Religious Education, 75, 387-473.
  • (1980). Tomorrow's child today. Religious Education, 75, 227-326. (International convention issue).
  • (1978). The Church's ministry in higher education. New York, NY: United Ministries in Higher Education, UMHE Communication Office.
  • (1977-1988). Religious Education [journal]. Taylor & Francis for Religious Education Association and the Association of Professors and Researchers in Religious Education.
  • (1978). Who are we?: The quest for a religious education. Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.
  • (1972). A colloquy on Christian education. Philadelphia, PA: Pilgrim Press.
  • (1967-1974). Colloquy [journal]. Philadelphia, PA: Division of Christian Education, United Church Board for Homeland Ministries.

Articles and Transcripts: Author

  • (2002). Foreword. In C. A. Westerhoff, Transforming the ordinary. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press.
  • (2001). Diversity and communion, [Web page]. St. Luke's Church. Available: http://www.stlukes-atl.org/message/01-21-01_john.html [2002, January 21, 2001].
  • (2001). Dying to self, [Web page]. St. Luke's Church. Available: http://www.stlukes-atl.org/message/04-01-01_john.html [2002, April 1, 2001].
  • (2001). Ember days, [Web page]. St. Luke's Church. Available: http://www.stlukes-atl.org/message/05-27-01_john.html [2002, May 27, 2001].
  • (2001). Evangelism through education, [Web page]. St. Luke's Church. Available: http://www.stlukes-atl.org/message/08-26-01_john.html [2002, August 26, 2001].
  • (2001). July 4th, [Web page]. St. Luke's Church. Available: http://www.stlukes-atl.org/message/06-24-01_john.html [2002, June 24, 2001].
  • (2001). Still a dream, [Web page]. St. Luke's Church. Available: http://www.stlukes-atl.org/message/05-06-01_john.html [2002, May 6, 2001]. (regarding mass media ministry).
  • (2001). Work and pray [Benedict of Nursia], [Web page]. St. Luke's Church. Available: http://www.stlukes-atl.org/message/07-15-01_john.html [2001, July 15, 2001].
  • (2000). An advent reflection, [Web page]. St. Luke's Church. Available: http://www.stlukes-atl.org/message/12-10-00_john.html [2002, December 10, 2000].
  • (2000). Living with persons of other faith traditions, [Web page]. St. Luke's Church. Available: http://www.stlukes-atl.org/message/11-19-00_john.html [2002, November 19, 2000].
  • (2000). May you be inscribed for a good year, [Web page]. St. Luke's Church. Available: http://www.stlukes-atl.org/message/09-23-01_john.html [2001, September 23, 2001].
  • (1999). Questions for discussion. In C. A. Westerhoff, Good fences: The boundaries of hospitality. Cambridge, MA: Cowley.
  • (1997-98). Lutheran Schools and the Making of Christians. Lutheran Education: A Journal of the Faculty of Concordia University, River Forest, 133, 5 ff.
  • (1994). Evangelism, evangelization, and catechesis: Defining terms and making the case for evangelization. Interpretation, 48, 156-165.
  • (1994). Formation, education, instruction. In J. Astley & L. J. Francis (Eds.), Critical Perspectives on Christian Education (Part 1.5). Leominster, England: Gracewing Fowler Wright.
  • (1993). The pastor as preacher-teacher. Homiletic, 18, 1-4.
  • (1993). The rediscovery of the mind [Review]. Christian Century, 110, 248-250. Review of J. R. Searle, Rediscovery of the Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992.
  • (1992). Fashioning Christians in our day. In S. Hauerwas & J. H. Westerhoff, III (Eds.), Schooling Christians: "Holy experiments" in American education (pp. 262-281). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
  • (1992). Foreword. In G. W. Pritchard, Offering the Gospel to Children. Boston, MA: Cowley Publications.
  • (1991). Confirmation: An Episcopal Church perspective, Confirming the faith of adolescents (pp. 152-164). New York, NY: Paulist Press.
  • (1990). Confirmation: An Episcopal Church perspective. Reformed Liturgy and Music, 24, 198-203.
  • (1990). Liturgies of the future: The process and methods of inculturation [Review]. Religious Education, 85, 4.
  • (1990). Postscript. In R. L. Burt, Good news in growing churches. New York, NY: Pilgrim Press.
  • (1989). Box 30, Folders 395-396, Contents: Westerhoff, John. In M. L. Smalley & J. R. Duff (Compilers), Archives of the Religious Education Association, 1902 to 1988, Record Group No. 74. New Haven, CT: Yale University Library, Divinity Library Special Collections.
  • (1989). The state and the non-public school 1825-1925 [Review]. Review of L. P. Jorgenson, State and the Non-Public School 1825-1925. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1987.
  • (1988). Alternate [sic] futures for worship [Review]. Books and Religion, 15, 28. Review of Alternate [sic] futures for worship [Review]. Collegeville, MN, Liturgical Press.
  • (1988). Teaching and religious imagination [Review]. Christian Century, 105, 347. Review of M. Harris, Teaching and Religious Imagination: An Essay in the Theology of Teaching. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row, 1987.
  • (1987). Celebrating and living the Eucharist: A cultural analysis. In B. J. Lee (Ed.), Alternative futures for worship: Vol. III: The Eucharist (pp. 17-48). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.
  • (1987). Children: Faith, formation, and worship. Reformed Liturgy and Music, 21, 13-16.
  • (1987). Formation, education, instruction. Religious Education, 82, 578-591.
  • (1987). Homily delivered on the occasion of the celebration and blessing of the marriage of Susan Bliss Emmons and Michael Lee Bentley. Religion and Intellectual Life, 4, 105-106.
  • (1987). Liturgics and catechetics. Worship, 61, 510-516.
  • (1986). Communal worship and personal faith. Reformed Liturgy and Music, 20 (2), 61-66.
  • (1986). Educational guide. In W. H. Willimon, With glad and generous hearts: A personal look at Sunday worship. Nashville, TN: The Upper Room.
  • (1985). Religious education and catechesis, Religious education in a pluralistic society (pp. 56-74). London, England: Hodder and Stoughton. (Response by J. Gibbs, pp 75-79).
  • (1985). The pastor as spiritual educator. Quarterly Review, 5, 44-53.
  • (1984). Practical theology: What will it become? Christian Century, 101, 116+.
  • (1983). A journey into self-understanding. In M. Mayr (Ed.), Modern masters of religious education (pp. 115-134). Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.
  • (1983). A whole approach to Lent-Holy Week. In D. T. Hessel (Ed.), Social Themes of the Christian Year: A Commentary on the Lectionary (pp. 165-175). Philadelphia, PA: Geneva Press.
  • (1983). The church and the family. Religious Education, 78, 249-274.
  • (1983). The formation of the public: Mass media [thematic issue]. Religious Education, 78, 5-60.
  • (1982). A catechetical way of doing theology. In N. H. Thompson (Ed.), Religious education and theology (pp. 218-242). Birmingham, AL: Religious Education Press.
  • (1982). Aspects of adult confirmation, Confirmation re-examined (pp. 109-122). Wilton, CT: Morehouse-Barlow Co.
  • (1982). Scripture and education: Challenges facing religious educators. Religious Education, 77, 472-476
  • (1982). The struggle for a common culture: Biblical images in nineteenth-century schoolbooks. In D. L. Barr & N. Piediscalzi (Eds.), Bible in American education (pp. 25-40). Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press.
  • (1982). Theological education and models for ministry. Saint Luke's Journal of Theology, 25, 153-169.
  • (1981). Anniversary reflections: Religious Education: 75 years [editorial]. Religious Education, 76, 578-584.
  • (1981). Christian education: Kerygma v didache: Perspectives on the future in the USA. In J. Ferguson (Ed.), Christianity, society and education (pp. 183-198). London, England: SPCK.
  • (1981). Framing an alternative future for catechesis. In J. H. Westerhoff, III & O. C. Edwards, Jr. (Eds.), A Faithful church (pp. 293-314). Wilton, CT: Morehouse-Barlow.
  • (1981). The challenge: Understanding the problem of faithfulness. In J. H. Westerhoff, III & O. C. Edwards, Jr. (Eds.), A faithful church (pp. 1-9). Wilton, CT: Morehouse-Barlow.
  • (1981). What has Zion to do with Bohemia. Religious Education, 76, 5-15.
  • (1980). The Sunday school of tomorrow: The Sunday school may be too bound to the past to meet the needs of the future. Christian Century, 97, 639-642.
  • (1980). Value catechesis. New Review of Books and Religion, 4, 3+.
  • (1980). Values for today's children. Religious Education, 75, 249-259.
  • (1979). A discipline in crisis. Religious Education, 74, 7-15. (An earlier version of this paper was published in St. Luke's Journal, The School of Theology, University of the South, 1978).
  • (1979). Calling forth the future. Religious Education, 75, 51-57.
  • (1979). Contemporary spirituality: Revelation, myth and ritual. In Ium (Ed.), Aesthetic dimensions of Religious Education (pp. 13-27). New York, NY: Paulist Press.
  • (1978). A necessary paradox: Catechesis and evangelism, nurture and conversion. Religious Education, 73, 409-416.
  • (1978). Chapel address (In celebration of the 25th anniversary of the School of Religious Education). Paper presented at the Gheens lecture series, Louisville, KY. (Transcript from address).
  • (1978). Christian education as a theological discipline. Saint Luke's Journal of Theology, 21, 280-288.
  • (1978). In search of a future: The church-related college. Paper presented at the The Church's Ministry in Higher Education conference sponsored by the National Institute for Campus Ministries, Duke Divinity School, Lafayette, IN. (Also available through Duke University Divinity School, Durham, NC).
  • (1978). Necessary paradox: Catechesis and evangelism, nurture and conversion. Religious Education, 73, 409-416.
  • (1978). R.E: 25th banquet address. Paper presented at the Celebration of the 25th anniversary of the School of Religious Education, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, KY. (Transcript of address).
  • (1978). The Christian life in liturgical context. In G. K. Neville & J. H. Westerhoff, III (Eds.), Learning Through Liturgy. New York, NY: Seabury Press.
  • (1977). Liturgical imperative of religious education, In The religious education we need (pp. 75-94). Mishawaka, IN: Religious Education Press.
  • (1977). Prophet or false prophet. Religious Education, 72, 22-25. (Response to "Religious education: Toward a prophetic word" by Stephen Schmidt).
  • (1977). Teaching tasks of the church, Southeastern studies (Vol. 1, pp. 110-120). Wake Forest, NC: Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. (Paper presented at Towards AD 2000 Conference, Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, Wake Forest, NC).
  • (1976). Church education for tomorrow. In F. C. Stough & U. T. Holmes, III (Eds.), Realities and visions: The church's mission today (pp. 84-91). New York, NY: Seabury Press.
  • (1975). Church education for tomorrow. Christian Century, 92, 1201-1204.
  • (1975). Future for the Sunday school. Duke Divinity School Review, 40, 183-201.
  • (1975). Learning and prayer. Religious Education, 70, 605-618. (Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Association of Professors and Researchers in Religious Education, Washington Hilton, October 27, 1974.).
  • (1974). [Autobiographical sketch by Assoc. Professor of Religion and Education at Duke Divinity School]. Duke Divinity School Review, 39, 183-188.
  • (1973). Changing focus: Toward an understanding of religious socialization. Andover Newton Quarterly, 14, 118-129.
  • (1973). Religious education for the Maypole dancers. Religious Education, 68, 569-585.
  • (1972). I'm always chasing rainbows. Religious Education, 67, 390-395. (Subject: Christian education fosters Christian lifestyle. Earlier version in Colloquy, June 1971; Expanded version in A Colloquy on Christian Education, 1972).
  • (1972). The church and education debate. Religious Education, 67, 49-59.
  • (1970). Where, how and why you think is what you think, In, Theology in revolution (pp. 149-167). New York, NY: Alba House.
  • (1965). Ecumenical spirit in a college community: [Williams College]. Harvard Divinity Bulletin, 30, 25-38.

Audio and Visual Recordings

  • with Bramer, P. D. G. (2002). Telephone interview with John H: Westerhoff III by Paul Bramer [Sound recording]. Chicago, IL and Atlanta, GA: Paul Bramer (personal library).
  • (1999). Bringing up children in the faith [2 videocassettes]. Children. Louisville, KY: Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary. (Plenary sessions from the Third Annual Faith Families & Congregations conference, Center for Congregations and Family Ministries).
  • (1995). Called to be a proclamation of the truth [Sound Recording]. SEAD conference 1995. Burke, VA: Make It Happen!
  • (1995). The making of Christians in the modern world [Sound Recording]. Spirituality of teaching. s.l.: [Association of Presbyterian Church Educators]. Lecture and question period at Association of Presbyterian Church Educators Conference, Atlanta, GA. (Responsibility: John H. Westerhoff, III).
  • (1992). The making of Christians: 1) The challenge of being Christian today. 2) The church and its vocation. 3) Living into our baptism [Sound Recording]. Louisville, KY: Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Recorded at Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary. (Caldwell Chapel).
  • (1990). Preaching to the child in each of us [Sound Recording]. Retelling the sacred story: Using imagination and story in Gospel proclamation. Preaching Days sponsored by the Philadelphia Chapter of the Academy of Preachers. (Includes brochure).
  • (1990). The Anglican way of life [1 videocassette]. Atlanta, GA: Episcopal Media Center.
  • (1989). The future of Christian education [Sound Recording]. s.l.: s.n. Recorded at Hartford Seminary Foundation, Hartford, CN.
  • (1988). Effecting change through effective collaboration [Sound Recording]. Palm Desert, CA: Convention Cassettes Unlimited. Plenary address at the 22nd National Conference on Catholic Youth Ministry (National Federation for Catholic Youth Ministry) held in San Diego, CA.
  • (1988). Lectures [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh Theological Seminary. Lectures at the Summer School of Religion, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, sponsored by Pitcairn-Crabbe Foundation and Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.
  • (1987). The teacher as content [Sound Recording]. Elkridge, MD: Chesapeake Audio/Video Communications. Address at The National Catholic Educational Association 84th Convention, New Orleans, LA.
  • (1985). Education for faith and commitment: 1) What do we mean by divine revelation? 2) What do we need to do to nurture this in our common life? 3) What are the practical implications for our life his seriously? [Sound Recording]. Atlanta, Ga.: The Episcopal Radio-TV Foundation Inc.
  • (1985). General session [Sound Recording]. Santa Ana, CA: TDM. Address at the L.A. Religious Education Congress, Anaheim, CA.
  • (1985). The spiritual journey as living into our baptism [Sound Recording]. Santa Ana, CA: TDM. Address at the L.A. Religious Education Congress, Anaheim, CA.
  • (1983). Discernment, healing, way of the cross [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes. (Includes 5 page pamphlet).
  • (1983). How do we help people? [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis II.
  • (1983). Life as eucharist: Seeking after the good of others: Relationships and caring [Sound Recording]. Human life in dialogue with the Christian story. Pittsburgh, PA. Lecture at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.
  • (1983). Liturgy and learning [Sound Recording]. Anaheim, CA: Religious Education Association.
  • (1983). Living into our baptism [Sound Recording]. Human life in dialogue with the Christian story. Pittsburgh, PA. Lecture at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.
  • (1983). Remembering who we are [Sound Recording]. Human life in dialogue with the Christian story. Pittsburgh, PA. Lecture at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary.
  • (1983). What is the spiritual life? [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis II.
  • (1982). The need for spirituality in Christian education [Sound Recording]. Address at a meeting of the Society for the Advancement of Continuing Education for Ministry, Presbyterian School of Christian Education, Richmond, VA.
  • (1982). The spiritual pilgrimage of youth [Sound Recording]. El Cajon, CA: Youth Specialties. with Bowman, L. E., Little, S., & Ng, D. (1980). Faith odyssey [Sound Recording]. Addresses and panel discussion, Symposium on Christian Education in the Future, Durham, NC. Durham, NC: Orange Presbytery, Presbyterian Church in the U.S.
  • with Johnson, M. (1980). Telephone interview: Mike Johnson coordinates a telephone interview as students question John Westerhoff about his book, Bring up children in the Christian faith [Sound Recording]. (Library of John H. Westerhoff, III).
  • (1980). The pilgrimage of Christian faith: 1) The pilgrimage 2) Children and the pilgrimage 3) Youth and the pilgrimage 4) Liturgy, learning and the pilgrimage of faith [Sound Recording]. Atlanta, GA: Catacomb Cassettes.
  • (1980). The pastoral ministry of education [Sound Recording]. Kansas City, MO: National Catholic Reporter Publ.
  • (1980). Baptism [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes. (Included on tape: William E. Burdick, Neill Quinn Hamilton).
  • (1979). Planning and designing parish education [Sound Recording]. Faith formation. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes. (Re-released 1981).
  • (1979). Sin as anxiety [Sound Recording]. The priest as a spiritual resource. Atlanta, GA: Catacomb Cassettes. (Also published by Atlanta, GA: Episcopal Radio-TV Foundation, 1985).
  • (1979). Spiritual leadership [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes.
  • (1979). The priest as catechist [Sound Recording]. The priest as a spiritual resource. Atlanta, GA: Catacomb Cassettes. (Also published by Atlanta, GA: Episcopal Radio-TV Foundation, 1985).
  • (1979). The spiritual life [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes. (Also on tape: Joseph Richard Venema).
  • (1979). Values for today's children [Sound Recording]. An address given at the Religious Education Association International Convention, Toronto, ON. New Haven, CT: The Religious Education Association.
  • (1978). Chapel address (In celebration of the 25th anniversary of the School of Religious Education) [Sound Recording]. Gheens lecture series. Louisville, KY: Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, School of Religious Education.
  • (1978). Classroom lecture in Philosophy of Religious Education class for Findley Edge [Sound Recording]. Gheens lecture series. Louisville, KY: Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, School of Religious Education.
  • (1978). Divine revelation is made known [Sound Recording]. Atlanta, GA: Catacomb Cassettes. One of three lectures delivered as part of the Northwestern Christian Education Conference held at Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR.
  • (1978). Faith is enhanced and enlivened [Sound Recording]. Atlanta, GA: Catacomb Cassettes. One of three lectures delivered as part of the Northwestern Christian Education Conference held at Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR.
  • (1978). Of liturgy and learning [Sound Recording]. The breadth of compassion. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes.
  • (1978). Of liturgy learning [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes.
  • (1978). People are prepared for vocation [Sound Recording]. Atlanta, GA: Catacomb Cassettes. One of three lectures delivered as part of the Northwestern Christian Education Conference held at Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR.
  • (1978). R.E: 25th banquet address [Sound Recording]. Celebrating the 25th anniversary of the School of Religious Education, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. Louisville, KY: Southern Baptist Theological Seminary.
  • (1977). Development of faith [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes.
  • (1977). Nature of the spiritual life and the contemporary mind [3 lectures].
  • (1977). The development of faith [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes.
  • (1977). The spiritual life [Sound Recording]. New Haven, CT: Religious Education Association REACH Cassettes.
  • (1976). A community of faith [Sound Recording]. Austin, TX: Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Lecture recorded during the Robert F. Jones lecture series at Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Austin, TX.
  • (1976). Enculturation and the development of faith [Sound Recording]. Austin, TX: Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Lecture recorded during the Robert F. Jones lecture series at Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Austin, TX.
  • (1976). The bankruptcy of a paradigm [Sound Recording]. Austin, TX: Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Lecture recorded during the Robert F. Jones lecture series, Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary, Austin, TX.
  • (1976). Theological education for Christian education [Sound Recording]. Austin, Tex.: Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary. Lecture recorded during the Robert F. Jones lecture series at Austin Presbyterian Theological Seminary.
  • (1975). [Panel discussion with S. Little, & C. F. Melchert regarding church education] [Sound Recording]. Panel discussion recorded at Presbyterian School of Christian Education, Richmond, VA. (Responsibility: John H. Westerhoff).
  • (1975). Christian education in the future [Video Cassette]. Richmond, VA: Media Services, Union Theological Seminary Library.
  • (1975). New values for our age [Sound Recording]. Healing the hurt of hunger. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes.
  • (1975). The future of church education [Sound Recording]. Address recorded at the Presbyterian School of Christian Education, Richmond, VA. (Responsibility: John H. Westerhoff).
  • (1975). The Sunday-school [Sound Recording]. Dallas: Perkins School of Theology. Address at a conference on Confrontational Sunday-school at Perkins School of Theology.
  • (1975). William H: McGuffey: Issues in religion and public education [Sound Recording]. Dayton, OH: Creative Sights and Sounds. Address at Religious Education Association Convention, Philadelphia, PA.
  • (1974). Hidden dimension: The mass media [Sound Recording]. Worchester MA: Media Center Assumption College. Recorded at the Ecumenical Institute. (Mis-spelling of speaker's name: John H. Westerchoff [sic]).
  • (1974). Potentialities for church education in the future [Sound Recording]. Address recorded at the Conference on the Future of Church Education, Massanetta Springs, VA. (Responsibility: John H. Westerhoff).
  • with Stone, B., Panoch, J. V., Knowles, M. S., & Thompson, E. A. (1974). Where we are and where we need to go in church education, in education, and in religion [Sound Recording]. Panel discussion recorded at the Conference on the Future of Church Education, Massanetta Springs, VA.
  • (1972). Planning alternate futures in religious education [Sound Recording]. Meddletown, OH: Creative Sights and Sounds. Address to Religious Education Association Convention.
  • (1970). Four styles of faith [Sound Recording]. Pittsburgh, PA: Thesis Theological Cassettes.

Assessments, Reviews, Testimonials

  • Asali, M. A., Small, A., & Andersen, D. N. (1989). Westerhoff on faith enculturation [Review: Will our children have faith, 1976]. Chicago Theological Seminary Register, 79, 17-22.
  • Au, W. (1991). Holistic catechesis: Keeping our balance in the 1990s. Religious Education, 86, 347-360.
  • Biles, R. (1979). McGuffey and his readers [Review]. Journal of Church and State, 21, 567-568. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, McGuffey and his readers: Piety, morality, and education in nineteenth-century America. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1978.
  • Callahan, S. (1976). Will our children have faith [Review]. New Review of Books and Religion, 1, 6. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Will our children have faith? New York, NY: Seabury Press, 1976.
  • Cully, K. B. (1978). An applied theoretician: John H Westerhoff, III: An interview. New Review of Books and Religion, 3, 4+.
  • Deller, W., & others. (1990). Will our children have faith?: Four study sessions based on videotapes by John Westerhoff III: A guidebook for participants and co-leaders. Toronto, ON: Logos Institute.
  • Edge, F. B. (1982). Bringing up children in the Christian faith [Review]. Review and Expositor, 79, 181-182. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Bringing up children in the Christian faith. Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press, 1980.
  • __________. (1980). Inner growth, outer change [Review]. Review and Expositor, 77, 584-585. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Inner growth, outer change. New York, NY: Seabury Press, 1979.
  • __________. (1978). Will our children have faith [Review]. Review and Expositor, 75, 159-160. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Will our children have faith? New York, NY: Seabury Press, 1976.
  • __________. (1977). Tomorrow's church [Review]. Review and Expositor, 74, 445-446. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Tomorrow's church. Word Books.
  • Fry, C. G. (1978). McGuffey and his readers [Review]. Concordia Theological Quarterly, 42, 458-459. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, McGuffey and his readers: Piety, morality, and education in nineteenth-century America. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1978.
  • Giannelli, A. C. (1984). Building God's people in a materialistic society [Review]. Religious Education, 79, 147-148. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Building God's people in a materialistic society. New York, NY: Seabury Press, 1983.
  • Gibson, G. C. (1979). Inner growth, outer change [Review]. New Review of Books and Religion, 4, 14. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Inner growth, outer change. New York, NY: Seabury Press, 1979.
  • Grimes, H. (1970). Values for tomorrow's children [Review]. Perkins Journal, 24, 42-44. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Values for tomorrow's children: An alternative future for education in the church. Philadelphia PA: Pilgrim Press, 1970.
  • Grisham, L. E. (2001, January 7). The feast of the baptism of our Lord, [Sermon text]. Available: http://www.uark.edu/campus-resources/episcopl/sermonlg17.html [2002. (incl. anecdote about John H. Westerhoff III).
  • Grizzle, D. (2001). Journey of faith, journey of acceptance, [Article]. Whosever: An on-line magazine for gay, lesbian, bi-sexual, and transgendered Christians. Available: http://www.whosoever.org/v4i5/journey.html [2002. (incl. testimony concerning John H. Westerhoff III).
  • Hartwig, R. D. (1980). McGuffey and his readers [Review]. Fides et Historia, 13 (1), 92-93. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, McGuffey and his readers: Piety, morality, and education in nineteenth-century America. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1978.
  • Heeter, M. (1989). Liturgy and learning through the life cycle [Review]. Chicago Theological Seminary Register, 79, 55-56. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Liturgy and learning through the life cycle. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row, 1985.
  • Heywood, D. (1988). Christian education as enculturation: The life of the community and its place in Christian education in the work of John H Westerhoff III. British Journal of Religious Education, 10, 65-71.
  • Hobbs, R. (1986). Living the faith community [Review]. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Living the Faith Community. Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press, 1985.
  • Kreider, E. C. (1981). Inner growth, outer change [Review]. Word & World, 1, 86-88. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Inner growth, outer change. New York, NY: Seabury Press, 1979.
  • Krug, P. S. (1986). Liturgy and learning through the life cycle [Review]. Christian Ministry, 17 (3), 36-37. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Liturgy and learning through the life cycle. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row, 1985.
  • Llovio, K. (1984). Toward a definition of Christian education: A comparison of Richards and Westerhoff. Christian Education Journal, 5 (2), 15-23.
  • MacNaughton, D. (1979). McGuffey and his readers [Review]. Church History, 48, 228. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, McGuffey and His Readers : Piety, Morality, and education in nineteenth-century America. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1978.
  • Marthaler, B. L. (1986). Living the faith community [Review]. Religious Education, 81, 663-664. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Living the faith community. Minneapolis, MN: Winston Press, 1985.
  • McCarter, N. D. (1977). Will our children have faith [Review]. Theology Today, 34, 132-134. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Will our children have faith? New York, NY: Seabury Press, 1976.
  • Melchert, C. F. (1974). Generation to generation [Review]. Religious Education, 69, 502-505. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Generation to generation: Conversations on religious education and culture. Philadelphia, PA: United Church Press, 1974.
  • Michaelson, R. S. (1978). McGuffey and his readers [Review]. Journal of Presbyterian History, 56, 275-276. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, McGuffey and his readers : piety, morality, and education in nineteenth-Century America. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1978.
  • Miller, R. C. (1971). Values for Tomorrow's Children [Review]. Encounter, 32, 177-178. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Values for tomorrow's children : An alternative future for education in the church. Philadelphia PA: Pilgrim Press, 1970.
  • Mongoven, A. M. (1985). A pilgrim people [Review]. Religious Education, 80, 656-658. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, A pilgrim people: Learning through the church year. Minneapolis, MN: Seabury Press, 1984.
  • Mulder, J. (1978). McGuffey and his readers [Review]. Religion in Life, 47, 512-514. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, McGuffey and his readers : piety, morality, and education in nineteenth-Century America. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1978.
  • Nelson, C. E. (1978). McGuffey and his readers [Review]. Religious Education, 73, 490. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, McGuffey and his readers: Piety, morality, and education in nineteenth-century America. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press, 1978.
  • __________. (1977). Will our children have faith [Review]. Religious Education, 72, 91-92. Review of J. H. Westerhoff, III, Will our children have faith? New York, NY: Seabury Press, 1976.
  • Nicholson, J. P. (1982). Analysis of theological, sociological, educational, and organizational dimensions of Westerhoff's socialization-enculturation paradigm. Religious Education, 77, 439. (Based on Ph.D. dissertation, Fordham University, 1981).
  • Nishioka, R. (1997). Sowing the seeds. Louisville, KY: Bridge Resources.
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Excerpts from Publications

(2000). Will our children have faith? ( Revised and expanded ed.). Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing.

It is difficult to be or become a Christian when everyone claims the name. The Christian faith necessitates a converted radical community of faith within which to live and grow; a servant community which seeks the good of others, acts for the liberation of all person, and aids us all to resist private gain in the search for corporate selfhood. (40)

(1975). Learning and prayer. Religious Education Journal, 70, 605-618.

Religious education, by mirroring general education and reflecting the culture's dominant concern for the intellect, has neglected the intuitional mode of consciousness and this, I contend, has not provided the learning necessary for the life of prayer… Religious education must not shy away from sense-awareness exercises, imagination games, contemplation or fantasy experiences, and the use of drama, dance, music, and the plastic arts. Concern for the affections ought once again to become a central component of all educational program. (609, 614)

(1972). I'm always chasing rainbows [Christian education fosters Christian lifestyle]. Religious Education Journal, 67, 390-395.

If churches do not aim to help children, youth, and adults become sensitive, compassionate persons who possess the knowledge, attitudes, and capacity to act responsibly alone and institutionally in relation the changing needs of society, we will have failed our children, ourselves-and God … To facilitate the development of this kind of persons the community of faith needs to meet at least three conditions: first, shared meaningful celebrations… second, reflected-upon experiences… third, opportunities for political and social action (391-3).

(1992). Fashioning Christians in our day. In Stanley Hauerwas & John H. Westerhoff, III (Eds.), Schooling Christians: "Holy experiments" in American education (pp. 262-281). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

Baptism is the sacrament by which the church makes new Christians--that is, by which persons are raised to new life in Christ, incorporated into Christ's body (the church), infused with Christ's mind and character, and empowered by the Holy Spirit to be Christ's continuing presence in the world. Through Christian initiation within a Christian community of faith, persons are formed and transformed into the persons that baptism establishes them to be. This process, historically known as catechesis--"to echo the Word" or "Christening"--is the means by which a community re-presents Christ (his life, teachings, death, and resurrection) in symbol, myth, rite, and common life and thereby fashions novices so that they might join the community in representing Christ to the world.Catechesis necessitates three deliberate or intentional, systemic or interrelated, sustained or lifelong processes essential to Christian faith and life: formation, education, and instruction. Instruction aids persons to acquire that knowledge and those abilities useful for responsible personal and communal Christian life in church and society. For example, through instructional processes persons acquire a knowledge of the content of Scripture as well as the ability to comprehend its meaning and interpret its implications for daily life and work. Instruction alone, however, can produce a person who knows all about Christianity but who does not intend to be Christian. Nevertheless, without the benefit of instruction, persons may not know what faithfulness it, what it implies, or how to decide what is faithful. Education aids persons to reflect critically on their behavior and experiences in the light of the gospel so that they might discern if they are being faithful and when they might need to change their behavior. For example, through critical reflection on the ways in which we live together as families, congregations, or schools, we can reform them to be more faithful. Christians, therefore, need to make education a natural way of life and not just a program, as they engage in critical reflection on every aspect of their lives. Formation aids persons to acquire Christian faith (understood as a particular perception of life and our lives), Christian character (understood as identity and appropriate behavioral dispositions), and Christian consciousness (understood as that interior subjective awareness or temperament that predisposes persons to particular experiences). For example, Christian formation is the participation in and the practice of the Christian life of faith. We do that by identifying with a community, observing how persons in it live, and imitating them. Instruction informs us in terms of knowledge and skills believed by the community to be important for communal life. Education reforms us by aiding us to discover dissonance between how we are living and how we are called to live. And formation both confirms (nurtures) and transforms (converts) us through a process best understood as apprenticeship.Formation is related to a natural process called enculturation; when enculturation becomes intentional it is called formation. Education is necessary for faithful formation, and instruction is important for faithful education, but formation is foundational because it is the primary means by which Christians are made. Still, formation as a process has not been given the attention it deserves. The reasons for this are varied, but among the most significant is that in recent years catechists have been more concerned with teaching doctrine and rational convictions about truth than they have been with faith understood as a community's perception of life and our lives, to which loyalty, trust, and devotion are to be given. Further, a primary concern of catechists has been the teaching of moral decision making and problem solving, which has led them to a neglect of the persons who make the decision and the character of those persons--that is, their identity and disposition to behave in particular ways. And finally, catechists have tended to focus on individual subjective experience to the neglect of consciousness or temperament, the interior awareness that makes any particular experience possible or probable. While instruction is a useful means for transmitting beliefs and teaching decision making, and education is useful for making sense of and interpreting experience, only through formation do persons acquire Christian faith, character, and consciousness.


Recommended Readings

Books

(1992). Fashioning Christians in our day. In Stanley Hauerwas & John H. Westerhoff, III (Eds.), Schooling Christians: "Holy experiments" in American education (pp. 262-281). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

This extended article details Westerhoff's enculturation idea in some detail. It critiques the popular notion of pluralism and points to the difficulty of socializing when the traditional partners of school, family, and society are not in harmony with the church's values and objectives.

Westerhoff, John H., III. (1994). Spiritual life: The foundation for preaching and teaching. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press.

"The spiritual life is prior to the moral life, for we can love the neighbor as God loves us only if first we have experienced that love affair with God. More important, we cannot love God except in response to God's love for us. This love affair with God is the one and only end of human life. All else is means." (1) In this book, Westerhoff develops his thoughts on the inner life of the preacher and teacher and the disciplines which support the spiritual life. He develops the impact of psychological type on spiritual disciplines.

(2000). Will our children have faith? (Revised and expanded ed.). Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse Publishing.

This revision of one of Westerhoff's earliest (1976) and most popular books includes the original text with an autobiographical introduction, an afterword, and an "update" of a few pages at the end of each chapter in which Westerhoff adds his further thoughts and reflections on the subject. "All my other books either prepared me for writing [this] or have been in some sense commentaries on or expansions of thoughts in this seminal book." It includes the section "Faith and its expansion" which outlines his well-known four styles of faith and the tree analogy of development.


Author Information

Paul Bramer

Paul D. G. Bramer serves as Associate Professor of Christian Formation at North Park Theological Seminary, North Park University, in Chicago, IL. He earned his Ph.D. in Educational studies at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.

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